How Social Loafing Hurts Group Creativity and How to Reduce It

Group problem solving can sometimes lead to breakthrough ideas that individuals working alone wouldn’t be able to come up with. Yet, often group problem solving not only doesn’t work as expected, but simply becomes...

Feelings of Power and Mental Flexibility in Perspective Taking

Perspective taking is critical for our ability to be flexible when trying to understand other people’s minds and predict their moves. Yet, our default inclination is to forgo perspective taking, and it may be...

Motivated Reasoning

What is Motivated Reasoning? A major obstacle to adaptive thinking and decision-making is selective information processing, which is part of motivated reasoning and motivated cognition. Motivated cognition is a subconscious process which leads the mind...

The Curse of Knowledge

Our judgments can often be impaired by our existing knowledge. The curse of knowledge is the biased effect that our existing knowledge has on our ability to consider other people’s perspective. In other words,...

Perspective Taking Deficit

Mental flexibility is especially valuable for helping us to step into other people’s shoes and see the world as they do. Such perspective taking skill is critical for predicting other people’s moves, which is...

Emergent Properties

Our strategic decision-making and problem solving can be noticeably improved if we embrace the idea of emergent properties, which explains why our knowledge about individual parts doesn't allow us to make confident overall predictions....

How to Reduce the Halo Effect

The halo effect is a pernicious cognitive bias which distorts our judgment and decision making, especially as it concerns people or organizations. Its essence is that a positive overall evaluation distorts any evaluation of specific...